Historically, computers were human clerks who calculated in accordance with effective methods. These human computers did the sorts of calculation nowadays carried out by electronic computers, and many thousands of them were employed in commerce, government, and research establishments. The term computing machineused increasingly from the s, refers to any machine that does the work of a human computer, i.
This entry surveys the history of these machines. Babbage's proposed Difference Engine was a special-purpose digital computing machine for the automatic production of mathematical tables such as logarithm tables, tide tables, and astronomical tables. The Difference Engine consisted entirely of mechanical components — brass gear wheels, rods, ratchets, pinions, etc. Numbers were represented in the decimal system by the positions of toothed metal wheels mounted in columns.
Babbage exhibited a small working model in He never completed the full-scale machine that he had designed but did complete several fragments. The largest — one ninth of the complete calculator — is on display in the London Science Museum. Babbage used it to perform serious computational work, calculating various mathematical tables. InBabbage's Difference Engine No.
Three were made, a prototype and two commercial models, one of these being sold to an observatory in Albany, New York, and the other to the Registrar-General's office in London, where it calculated and printed actuarial tables. Babbage's proposed Analytical Engine, considerably more ambitious than the Difference Engine, was to have been a general-purpose mechanical digital computer.
The behaviour of the Analytical Engine would have been controlled by a program of instructions contained on punched cards connected together with ribbons an idea that Babbage had adopted from the Jacquard weaving loom. Babbage worked closely with Ada Lovelace, daughter of the poet Byron, after whom the modern programming language ADA is named. Lovelace foresaw the possibility of using the Analytical Engine for non-numeric computation, suggesting that the Engine might even be capable of composing elaborate pieces of music.
A large model of the Analytical Engine was under construction at the time of Babbage's death in but a full-scale version was never built. Babbage's idea of a general-purpose calculating engine was never forgotten, especially at Cambridge, and was on occasion a lively topic of mealtime discussion at the war-time headquarters of the Government Code and Cypher School, Bletchley Park, Buckinghamshire, birthplace of the electronic digital computer.Mathematics award abel prize bond value
The earliest computing machines in wide use were not digital but analog. In analog representation, properties of the representational medium ape or reflect or model properties of the represented state-of-affairs.
In obvious contrast, the strings of binary digits employed in digital representation do not represent by means of possessing some physical property — such as length — whose magnitude varies in proportion to the magnitude of the property that is being represented. Analog representations form a diverse class.
Some examples: the longer a line on a road map, the longer the road that the line represents; the greater the number of clear plastic squares in an architect's model, the greater the number of windows in the building represented; the higher the pitch of an acoustic depth meter, the shallower the water.Query: Lucene syntax au:ti:yr:Advanced searchContributeComments. This is a collection of bibliographies of scientific literature in computer science from various sources, covering most aspects of computer science.
The bibliographies are updated weekly from their original locations such that you'll always find the most recent versions here. The collection currently contains more than 7 millions of references mostly to journal articles, conference papers and technical reportsclustered in about bibliographies, and consists of more than 2.
More than 1 million of references contain URLs to an online version of the paper. There are more than links to other sites carrying bibliographic information. For more information on the contents of this collection have a look at the bibliographic statistics. Since the bibliographies are not just referenced by links, but actually mirrored and present as a local copy, they are searchable.History of Personal Computers Part 1
You may use Lucene syntaxavailable fields are: ti titleau authoryr publications year. Wildcards: '? Here is a of bibliographies that have been added or updated within the last days.
The bibliographies have been categorized hierarchically.Leeds dissertation binding center program requirements
You can descend the hierarchy by following the subject areas below or search the bibliography descriptions with a boolean query.
The bibliographies have been grouped into subject areas, but there is still a substantial overlap between subject areas. There are also other online bibliographies that are not integrated into this collection. If you would like to establish links from your page to interesting bibliographies in this collection, it is advised that you do not use URLs to a particular bibliography since the URLs of bibliographies might change and you would miss future additions that are also interesting to you.
You can test query expressions with the search form above to see whether the appropriate bibliographies are retrieved. That way you'll always link to all interesting bibliographies and do not miss out on new additions.
If you find the bibliography collection useful for your work, I would be happy if you acknowledge it to me.History of Computing. This is a good time to teach or take this course - many good histories have been written in the last five years or so.
Here is a selection to get you started: One-Volume Histories:. Computer: a history of the information machine Author: Campbell-Kelly, Martin.
Published: BoulderColo. C36 Scholarly. Written in a somewhat more entertaining style and relatively short. A good second book after Ceruzzi. A good source for computers in the s and s; origins of software; and history of PCs.
Computers: the life story of a technology Author: SwedinEric Gottfrid. Published: WestportConn. Emphasizes period from Babbage to the transistor. Excellent thumbnail histories of the major players and detailed information about how their machines actually worked. Dated now, but so what? Maybe too condensed: Dozens of personalities, technologies and machines come and go, usually without much explanation.
On the other hand, you know where to find the full story, right? Published: New York : Norton, c D38 Really more of a popular math book than a history of computing. An entertaining read, but pretty tangential for our purposes. Herman Hollerith, forgotten giant of information processing Author: Austrian, Geoffrey.
A97 A dense book, not particularly organized or well-written. An interesting way to look at the Web: Do the two institutions have similar cause-and-effect? Semi-popular but very well researched. This one is about the alleged chess-playing machine that Edgar Allen Poe wrote about. Basically for fun, but the book does contain good information about the history of early automata and their influence on Babbage.
A short book but well-researched and informative. Who invented the computer? BasheLyle R.
Johnson, Emerson W. Pugh, John H. Excellent, if technical, history of how IBM built the suite of new technologies needed to make the successful business computers of the s. Business history is also well represented, if less convincing. A massive and often dry book, but very useful. Also contains extensive background on pre-War history. A sideshow for our course, but a possible paper topic. What does this industry say about the dynamics of industries based on "ordinary," digital machines.
Very detailed, scholarly case study of IBM's rivals in the immediate postwar. A dense read on a very narrow topic.I nApple Computer introduced Macintosh, a computer intended to be literally revolutionary. It presented dramatic technological innovations to the public in a physical design that reflected a break with the past and forced a new approach to technology onto its users.Business marketing major description job list
Over the next few years, the presentation of this technology gradually became subsumed by customer and marketing demands. The personal vision of a small team was diluted into products which became differentiated less by concept than by technical power and superficial detail. The form of Apple's desktop computers became distinct through the consistent use of a design language rather than by physical features that explicitly guided their use.
This design languagea set of superficial details that were related to function but did not dictate it, also first appeared inbut in a version of the technologically less advanced Apple II computer.
Adaptation of this design language to later, more conservative, products was the direct result of a new corporate direction for Apple, both in its internal structure and in its market focus. The personal computing revolution expressed by Macintosh was rendered more palatable to a changing audience by fulfilling expectations that were then reinforced, contributing to the development of a standard physical form for the computer.
T he physical design of Apple's personal computers in the years preceding and following the introduction of the original Macintosh expresses monumental changes in what Steven Lubar has called "'machine politics': the ways in which machines modulate, influence, and intermediate the interactions of groups" Lubar Between andmicrocomputers gradually assumed a large place in daily lives, evolving from a novelty, hobby item into a routinely used tool.
Appeal to technological determinism to explain this evolution belittles the importance of "machine politics;" the appearance and function of personal computers were shaped together not in any simple way by technical improvements, but by two frequently conflicting groups, the designers and the users.
The history of Apple computer reveals the tension between a design centered on guiding the users' relationship to computing and the expectations of the users themselves.
To Historiography. History of computer design: Introduction.Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks.
This bibliography is annotated to provide a synthesis of recent reports and current initiatives regarding information technology and manufacturing research. Advanced Research Projects Agency. Washington, D. This booklet, distributed by ARPA, describes, among other things, the mission, strategy, activities, statutory programs, and selection criteria of the Technology Reinvestment Program.
The selection criteria include the following technology focus areas:. Process control for electronics manufacturing, i. Design environments and tools needed to support the development of products from concept to fielding, including the engineering frameworks, integrated product and process descriptions, and analysis tools to support the designer.
Chern, Bernard. Advanced computer and information technologies that support distributed design and intelligent manufacturing of objects. System-level issues that arise in understanding, modeling, and integrating the component manufacturing technologies to form integrated manufacturing systems. The computing and networking infrastructure and services necessary to realize distributed design and manufacturing. The integration of design, manufacturing, and business management processes; and.
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New experimental methods for the rapid prototyping of new products and new manufacturing systems. Clinton, William J. Among the research areas identified in this document as candidates for increased funding for advanced manufacturing research and development are the following:.
Computer Systems Policy Project. CSPP is an affiliation of chief executive officers of U. Its report advocates the development of a national information infrastructure, which would include a manufacturing infrastructure that incorporates computing and communications technologies to support integrated development, engineering, and manufacturing processes.
Council on Competitiveness. Council on CompetitivenessWashington, D. This report identifies critical technologies in materials and associated processing technologies, engineering and production technologies, electronic components, information technologies, and powertrain and propulsion technologies. Within the engineering and production technologies category, it lists the following broad areas as critical to U.
Cutkosky, Mark R. The experiments represent a step toward the use of agents communicating on a knowledge level to compose large, complex systems out of existing software modules. Dertouzos, Michael L. Lesterand Robert M. Made in America: Regaining the Productive Edge. This text offers several strategies for the federal government to improve U. Continue investing in basic research activities in science and engineering, including social science.Pay for my logic dissertation
Extend research and development support to include a greater emphasis on downstream phases of product and process engineering and on clearing obstacles to innovation. Strive for greater efficiency in military research and development and military procurement.Links : Commercial General computer history Apple specific.
M uch of the available historical work on computers concentrates on business models and economics. They rarely discuss computers as artifacts, but they do provide some of the historical background necessary for a study of material culture.
T he most helpful of technology journalism was found in Compute! These computer magazines provided advertisements, reviews, speculations, opinions, and technical information for the period examined, as well as occasional nostalgia. Cited articles are listed here:.
T hese books are extremely unusual in showing a concern for the physical design of computers:. T hese works describe models for analyzing material culture. As I've s aidnone are specifically geared towards the study of computers, but they each have contributed to my perspective.
The articles by Cooke and Gilborn are particularly useful. M aterial culture studies are gradually becoming more common among historians of technology. Lubar and Gordon are among the growing few in the intersection between these broad fields:.
T he emergance of material culture study is one theme in the history of the history of technology. Staudenmaier's is the most accessible study of his own emerging discipline:. S tudies of computer technology are often done by those embracing or advocating the technology itself. As such, many of my primary references are available through the Internet. C ommercial web pages are generally not very helpful for historical information.
The Modern History of Computing
The study of computers is at a stage similar to that of industrial archeology, as described by Kenneth Hudson in when a change was beginning to occur; much of the direct work is being done by amateurs. Most of the web pages I have used are done by individuals or clubs, out of interest rather than financial gain. A few of these follow:. History of computer design: Bibliography and related links. Apple Computer, Inc. Apple has surprisingly little organization of its archival materials for research such as mine.
However, they very happily sent me annual stockholder reports for several of the years within my period, and, though not particularly useful, they are quite interesting in revealing Apple's self-conscious corporate culture. This book is the result of many interviews with people in the computer industry and it contains many interesting facts and a few insights. However, its thesis, that Apple persistently ignored great business opportunities to its own eventual decline, is necessarily focussed on managerial conflicts.
He seems to have very little knowledge of technical issues, though he offers broad explanations that would satisfy a general reader. Ferguson, Charles H. Sculley, John, Odyssey: Pepsi to Apple Smith, Douglas K. Young, Jeffrey S.Lesson 6 Normal Distribution Use normalized distributions to compute probabilities Use the Z-table to look up the proportions of observations above, below, or in between values Lesson 7 Sampling Distributions Apply the concepts of probability and normalization to sample data sets.
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Use statistical research methods. Compute and interpret values like: Mean, Median, Mode, Sample, Population, and Standard Deviation. Explore data through the use of bar graphs, histograms, box plots, and other common visualizations. Investigate distributions and understand a distributions properties.
Manipulate distributions to make probabilistic predictions on data. What do I get. ResourceTutoringStatistics Club at UCLA Close (X) PEOPLE Faculty ProfileFacultyStaffResearchersGraduate StudentsAlumni Close (X) COURSES Schedule of ClassesCourse Descriptions Close (X) Events SeminarsCommencement 2017ASA DataFestTM 2017 at UCLAStatistics Club at UCLA EventsDAE 2017 Conference Close (X) Our Master of Applied Statistics Program is linking with industrial, business, and government partners.Director of franchise operations resume
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